Work for Hire: Who Owns the Copyright In The Iron Man Theme?

ironmanBy Chike Eze

Generally, the author of a work owns the copyright in the work. However, an exception to the rule is that the employee or hiring party for whom the work was prepared is considered the owner of the work. The U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York applied the “instance and expense” test in Urbont v. Sony Music Entertainment to determine whether the Iron Man Theme, created by Jack Urbont (“Urbont”) at Marvel’s request, was a work made for hire. Continue reading

NFL Cheerleaders: restricted heavily and paid minimally

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By Talia Loucks

Being a cheerleader for a winning football team like the Seattle Seahawks or the Denver Broncos sounds like a lot of fun: exciting games, screaming fans, and trips to the Super Bowl. But for the teams that are not winning any titles, the cheerleaders do not have much to cheer about. On top of cheering for a team with a losing record, many of these cheerleaders are barely even compensated for their time.

Minimum compensation may seem reasonable to the average fan: these cheerleaders get to be on the field at every game. Many want this position, and many are turned down. That should be enough for these women, right? Well, taking a closer look at the requirements shows that the NFL cheerleaders are restricted in a number of ways: the gaining of a couple pounds can result in suspension, many of the squads must pay for their own uniforms, and some are even encouraged to have plastic surgery. Additionally, cheerleaders must rehearse for long hours and participate in charity events and publicity events. All of this, plus any travel time for playoffs can make having a regular 9-5 job very difficult. Continue reading