Tag: Google

Sharing Is Not Always Easy – An Analysis of Sharing Data Between the Public and Private Sectors

Picture1By Isaac Prevost

Traffic data plays an important role for public agencies concerned with traffic management and infrastructure. We’re seeing private companies collect more and more of this data, occasionally resulting in partnerships between governments and those private companies. However, whether these partnerships will stave off an increased interest in regulatory requirements of private data disclosure remains to be seen.

Federal, state, and local governments collect significant traffic data about traffic patterns and use of roadway system. The collection methods used by governmental entities range from interconnected sensors along the road to government employees manually tallying vehicle occupancies. This information is then used to analyze infrastructure needs, improve public transportation routes, and provide real-time traffic information to the public. In recent years however, there has also been a substantial uptick in the amount of traffic data collected by private companies. This is occurring with the prevalence of ride-sharing companies, increasingly-automated cars, and mapping applications such as Google Maps.

So, just how are public transportation agencies utilizing these new sources of data? Waze, a GPS navigation software owned by Google, launched the Connected Citizens Program in 2014 that shares traffic and road information with public entities for free. Agencies that partner with them participate in a two-way exchange of traffic data, giving Waze information on road closures and incidents. This private data supplements the government’s data, providing better information on functions such as the timing of traffic signals or the dispatch of emergency vehicles.

An alternative example of these partnerships can be found between Strava Metro and public agencies, where the agency pays for access to the data. Strava, a popular application for runners and cyclists, gives the public entities access to the their users’ running and cycling routes.  The Oregon Department of Transportation pays $20,000 per year for access to the data. Information from Strava Metro was a factor in the decision to restrict cars from Portland’s Tilikum Crossing bridge. These types of collaborations are just a small sample of how private data is increasingly being used in public planning.

However, even though the voluntary sharing of private data with public entities has become more common, it has not happened without its hurdles. While governments may be eager to use the data that companies like Waze or Strava are willing to share or sell, tensions have arisen when a company like Uber is reluctant to turn over data or withholds certain customer information. A partnership between Uber and the City of Boston in 2015 resulted in underwhelming results because Uber only disclosed the zip codes for the start and end location of an Uber user’s ride. A city official explained that the location information was not specific enough to be useful for urban planning.

Instead of pursuing partnerships, some cities have required data information from ridesharing companies in exchange for their license to operate in the area. In January 2017, the New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission requested all passenger pick-up and drop-off information from ride-sharing companies such as Uber and Lyft. Uber publicly objected to the proposal, citing the privacy of their drivers, but the Commission kept the requirement. The City expressed interest in the value of Uber’s data for traffic planning and analysis, as well as a tool for preventing drivers from working beyond their permitted total of work.

Possibly in an effort to appease regulators, Uber launched Uber Movement this year, which aggregates and anonymizes Uber’s ride data to show the traffic flows of various cities. In their FAQs section, Uber Movement states that the launch of the site was partially due to feedback from government agencies that “aggregated data will inform decisions about how to adapt existing infrastructure and invest in future solutions to make our cities more efficient.” One of their pilot reports tracked how a metro shutdown in Washington D.C. affected travel times in the city. The New York Times labeled this website “an olive branch to local governments.”

Uber Movement formally launched in August. As it gains more and more data on various cities, it could provide an interesting case study: what amount and type of private traffic data are governmental entities hoping to access? Will the availability of this data stave off further local and state regulations? Partnerships between governments and private companies are becoming more and more common, but the success or failure of Uber Movement may provide some insight into what lies ahead for these types of partnerships.

 

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EU Antitrust Policy: Favoring Innovation over the Googles’ of the World

Picture1By Amela Zukic

As many of us have heard, the European Commission recently slapped Google with a 2.7-billon dollar antitrust fine for allegedly favoring its own comparison-shopping service, an illegal practice in the EU. Google now has 90 days to cease this practice or it could face a fine of up to 5% of the average daily worldwide turnover of its parent company, Alphabet. While many in the U.S. may reject this decision, the EU’s ruling reflects its underlying goal of fostering innovation and should not be quickly dismissed. Continue reading “EU Antitrust Policy: Favoring Innovation over the Googles’ of the World”

Regulatory Landscape Remains Unclear for Mobile Health App Developers

8585047526_37a5bed3ff_bBy Mariko Kageyama

The digital health field has been growing exponentially and is now expanding rapidly into emerging markets. As a result, mobile health apps, or “mHealth apps,” have exploded in popularity. If you search for “health” on online app stores such as Apple’s App Store or Google Play, you will have no problem finding countless apps with various health-related purposes. One survey reports that nearly 260,000 mHealth apps were available worldwide by 2016.

However, what mHealth app developers and consumers may not realize is that these new technologies are becoming the target of increasingly tight regulations by both federal and state laws in the United States.

At the federal level, mobile health apps may be scrutinized under the following federal agency laws:

  • Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and HITECH Act – These acts regulate data privacy and security of health information. They are enforced by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services’ Office for Civil Rights (OCR) and Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC);
  • Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) – This act allows the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to regulate the safety and effectiveness of “medical devices;” and
  • Federal Trade Commission Act (FTC Act) – This act both creates the FTC and allows it to enforce and penalize deceptive or unfair business practices including false or misleading claims about apps’ performance.

Among these major agency players, the FDA has struggled the most with trying to adapt its existing regulatory framework to include and regulate mHealth apps.

For instance, the FDA can regulate “medical devices,” but what qualifies as a “medical device” under FDA law? According to its 2015 Guidanace, the FDA does not want to regulate every single smartphone app that tangentially relates to fitness or wellness. Instead, the FDA only wants to keep an eye on a small subset of apps called “mobile medical apps” that may pose moderate to high risks to a patient’s safety if the apps fail to work as intended. “Mobile medical apps” can either be those connected to existing medical devices already regulated by FDA, or those that “transform” mobile platforms into an FDA-regulated device.

The FDA explains that a mobile app “transforms” into a medical device when it uses attachments, display screens, or sensors, or when it uses a mobile platform’s built-in features such as light, vibrations, and camera to create functionalities similar to those of currently regulated devices. But the exact actions that constitute a “transformation” are not yet known and remain open to significant agency discretion.

Therefore, if you were to create a new mHealth app that “transforms” a mobile device, you may need to seek FDA approval for a specific medical device classification based on the level of safety risks it poses. The classes are ranked I, II, or III and any class of device can be subject to what is known as Premarket Notification 510(k).

In anticipation of ambiguities in this field, multiple federal agencies collaborated in 2016 to create the Mobile Health Apps Interactive Tool. What is unique about this user-friendly educational website is that it is clearly intended for IT developers, not healthcare professionals or general consumers.

State laws have also come into play. Earlier in 2017, the New York Attorney General settled with three mHealth app developers for state law violations over their misleading marketing and privacy practices. Those mHealth apps are: My Baby’s Beat–Prenatal Listener; Heart Rate Monitor & Pulse Tracker; and Cardiio-Heart Rate Monitor + 7 Minute Workout. As illustrated in the settlement documents, these apps do not look any more sophisticated than other similar apps, but the New York AG maintained that these cardiac rate monitors probably fall under FDA Class II medical devices. Such a classification means that these are higher risk devices than Class I and thus subject to greater regulatory controls. Although the investigation did not go further, these state cases show that mHealth app developers and manufacturers can be exposing themselves to large amounts of liability at the state level as well as the federal level.

Despite this heightened oversight, the current FDA Guidance is clearly nothing more than a temporary fix when much more is needed to address these issues in such a rapidly growing and changing field. Because Congress has a less-than-great track record of quickly enacting laws, the FDA and other relevant agencies should act swiftly to reevaluate these regulations in order to ensure consumer health and safety while simultaneously fostering innovation in this massively beneficial field.

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The Key to the YouTube Advertisement Crisis: an Improved AI

maxresdefaultBy Derk Westermeyer

A little over 4 years ago, comedian Ethan Klein uploaded his first video on his YouTube Channel, h3h3productions. That video’s premise was about how people use toilet paper. While this type of comedy may not be for everyone, Ethan’s channel has largely been a success. Since that first video, Ethan has uploaded hundreds more videos to his channel, a large portion of which generate millions of views each. Continue reading “The Key to the YouTube Advertisement Crisis: an Improved AI”

How to Fight Fake News in a World Spewing Alternative Facts

Picture1By Mackenzie Olson

Before you re-share an online article, before you give weight to its assertions—before you even begin to read the first line—ask yourself one question: “Does this look like a credible source?”

At a young age, I learned that I must first ask this question before citing to any given resource in a research paper or project. Accordingly, I learned where to look for reputable sources, how to determine which of these sources were credible, and the ways in which to best use these sources to locate further acceptable resources.

I was surprised when I learned just how frequently Internet users are duped into reading, believing, and ultimately re-sharing fake news stories. In the months immediately prior to the 2016 U.S. presidential election, the top performing fake news stories generated more engagement than the top performing real stories published by major news outlets. These leading fake stories generated over 8.7 million shares, reactions, and comments on social media, while the leading stories published by major news outlets generated about 7.3 million similar reactions. Continue reading “How to Fight Fake News in a World Spewing Alternative Facts”